Where are the details coming from?

Functional requirements

  • structural stability
  • center of gravity (visual center, actual center),
  • charging port,(holes on the surface, ).
  • Movements (Securing wheels, rails, rotational movement,
  • Space for extension,
  • Enough room for airflow(like a vacuum cleaner), straight-through suction path
  • Hidden parts (power cords (dyson))
  • Use design to find a work-around to manufacturing constraints,
  • access for maintenance
  • housed in an ergonomic position, optimal control,
  • tilt angles,
  • easy to carry/hold (create patterns)
  • easy to push/open

Visual cue

  • guidance,
  • usability (where to hold, push, grab, retract, replace, )
  • buttons/switches (hidden or exposed) ,
  • indication lights,
  • sound (speakers)
  • compartments

Psychological reassuring

  • visual weight,
  • balance,
  • slot, safe

Psychological disruption

  • imbalance, surprise, unexpected

Gestalt psychology—perceive entire patterns or configurations, not merely individual components.

  • connections
  • joints,
  • axis,
  • transition between surface, transition between parts
How to manufacture?
  • Constraints,
  • parting lines (wall thickness),
  • material choice,
  • draft,
  • enhance walls (ribs),
  • deliberately avoid the drawback of manufacturing limits

How to assemble?

  • minimize parts and labor in assembly
  • optimal choice on parting lines again(make assembly line run smoothly)
  • easy to be disassembled (consider packing & storage)
  • offset surfaces to provide margin for assembly
  • design a tool for easy assembly


  • reduce size,
  • minimum order, choices of manufacturing process
  • material choice
  • screen(software)
  • maintenance


  • feel, patterns, rhythm
  • consider social trends