Visual Perception

Universial Principles of Aesthetics

Good design begins with a clear understanding of the basics. The principles of design are guidelines for putting together elements in a way to create effective communication. It’s quite rare to see only one principle being used at a time, however, you do not necessarily need to use all principles on one project – even the use of one helps in creating good design.

Use the principles of design to shape your work

Addition, Subtraction & Transition

Products usually are constructed by simple geometric form or forms. There are structural or manufacturing process constraints involved. Also addition and subtraction are often used to structure a form in order to create an interface or visual focal point.
If there’re more than one geometric forms, transition between forms and surface would be considered. The dominant part of elements is the one that stands out and carries more visual weight. Sub-dominant or subordinate elements carry little visual weight and usually carries some feature or functions.


In the simplest terms, gestalt theory is based on the idea that the human brain will attempt to simplify and organize complex images or designs that consist of many elements, by subconsciously arranging the parts into an organized system that creates a whole, rather than just a series of disparate elements. Our brains are built to see structure and patterns in order for us to better understand the environment that we’re living in.

Harmony & Contrast

The principles of harmony and contrast seem completely contradictory, but it is the balance between these two that is vital to the success of any work of art.Harmony is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar or related elements–Adjacent colors/Similar shapes/Related texture. Harmony in design helps bring about unity. All harmony and no contrast, however, can become monotonous. A balance must be struck between areas of harmony and areas of contrast.

Adding contrast creates a focal point, which grabs an audience’s attention. Contrast can be created by size, weight, position, color, shape, and style. 

Unity & Diversity

Unity can give a sense of entirety or wholeness to a product family or equally break it up and create a sense of variety or disharmony.Using similar elements or material to apply unity to your work is a strong way to bring a brand concept to life

Scale & Proportion

Proportion is the visual size and weight of elements in a composition and how they relate to each other. The book’Geometry of Design’ a mathematical explanation of how art works presented in a manner we can all understand.

Symmetry & Balance

Elements can have different visual weights dependent on their size, shape or color. Please keep in mind that it isn’t necessary for a design to be symmetrical in order to be considered balanced, an asymmetrical design can also be balanced too. Asymmetrical balance is where the weight of design language is not equally distributed (but is still visually balanced). Asymmetrical designs are bolder and can bring real visual interest.

Repetition & Rhythm

Repetition strengthens a design by repeating elements throughout the entire piece. It is a conscious effort to unify all parts of a design. This can be a particular format, a color, a shape, a bold font, even a texture – by repeating the element throughout the design you are creating consistency and rhythm.

Bioinspiration and Visual Analogy

Well-designed image reveals the mind’s intuitive leaps to connect known with unknown experience. Using analogy helps users to better understand abstract concepts and to fully exploit their capacity to retrieve previously acquired knowledge

CMF & Design

CMF, which stands for Color, Material & Finish. Usually CMF designers work alongside industrial designers and product design engineers to make sure that the chromatic and tactile identities of the product are consistent. On smaller teams, a lone industrial designer might take on this role. Different materials have their own charecteristic traits hence the design language could be different.